Home Facts About Java Education
Education in Indonesia (also Java) is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education of Indonesia (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia/Depdiknas). Education in Indonesia was previously the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia (Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia/Depdikbud). In Indonesia, every citizen has to have nine years of education, six years at elementary level and three in middle school.
Based on 2002 cencus, literacy level in Indonesia: 87,9%.
"Every citizen shall have the right to obtain education and the government shall establish and conduct a national education system which shall be regulated by the state. Struggling under the shift of political system and economic structure, and the shift from centralized concentration of power development to decentralization, the government of Indonesia through the Ministry of National Education has done efforts to maintain the existing education development achievement, to prepare high quality of human resources, and to make some adjustment toward the national education system in line with the implementation of decentralization."
From birth until the age of 5, Indonesian children do not generally have access to formal education. From the age of 5 to 6 or 7, they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens, as most of the intention of this is to prepare them for primary school. These days, most kindergartens are owned by a private school, with more than 49 thousand kindergartens, 99.35% of the total kindergartens in Indonesia. The kindergarten years are usually divided into 2, "Class A" and "Class B" with a year of each class.
An elementary school uniform in Indonesia. Children ages 7-12 attend Sekolah Dasar (SD) (literally Elementary School). This level of education is compulsory for all Indonesian citizens, based on the national constitution. Quite different with kindergartens in Indonesia, most elementary schools are owned by the government, or public school, with 93% of all elementary schools. Similar to education in the U.S. and Australia, all students have to study for six years to pass this level, although some schools have offered an acceleration program, where students can finish the elementary school for just five years. This can be done with students with a higher intelligence quotient (IQ).
Middle School, generally known by the abbreviation "SMP" (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) is part of primary education in Indonesia. Students attend Middle School for three years from 13 - 15 years of age. After three years of schooling and graduation, students may move on to High School or College, or cease formal education. There are around 22,000 schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between the public and private sector.
Based on the national constitution, Indonesian citizens do not have to attend high school as the minimum requirement is 9 years education. This is also reflected by the number of high schools in Indonesia, with just slightly below 9,000 schools.
After graduation from High school or college, students may attend a university.