HomeBlogs Bukit Tigapuluh National Park Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (also called Bukit Tiga Puluh and Bukit
Tigapulah) - The Thirty Hills - is a 143,223 hectare National Park in
eastern Sumatra, consisting primarily of tropical lowland forest,
largely in Riau province, with a smaller part of 33,000 ha in Jambi
province. It is famous as one of the last refuges of endangered species
such as the Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant,
Sumatran rhinoceros and Asian tapir, as well as many endangered bird
species. It forms part of the Tesso Nilo Complex biodiversity hotspot.
The Park is inhabited by the indigenous peoples of the Orang Rimba and
Talang Mamak tribes.
The Park itself has been under consistent
threat from illegal logging and palm oil plantations, with two thirds of
the park logged.
Flora and fauna Ecosystem
types within the Park include lowland and highland forests, with flora
such as Gutta-percha, Shorea, Alstonia scholaris, Dyera costulata,
Koompassia excelsa, Rafflesia hasseltii, Daemonorops draco and various
kinds of rattan.
According to a 1994 survey Bukit Tigapuluh
National Park has 59 species of mammal, 6 species of primate, 198
species of bird, 18 species of bat and various species of butterfly.
Mammals include Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant,
Sumatran rhinoceros, Asian tapir, Sun bear, Siamang, Crab-eating
Macaque, Sumatran Surili, Sunda Loris, Clouded Leopard, Leopard Cat,
Marbled Cat, Malayan Civet, Indian Muntjac, Sumatran Serow and Java
Bird species include: Great Argus, Little
Green-pigeon, White-rumped Shama, White-bellied Woodpecker, Crested
Serpent-eagle, Hill Myna, Helmeted Hornbill, Wrinkled Hornbill,
White-winged Wood Duck, Storm's Stork, Garnet Pitta and Grey-breasted
The Park also has an important role in protecting the hydrology of the Kuantan Indragiri watershed.
Conservation and threats Deforestation for oil palm plantation in the buffer zone of the National Park
1982 the National Conservation Plan highlighted the importance of Bukit
Tigapuluh ecosystem and classified the two conservation areas of Bukit
Besar Wildlife Sanctuary (200,000 ha) and Seberida Nature Reserve
(120,000 ha) as priority I conservation areas. In 1992 the Indonesian
Government in cooperation with the Norwegian Government conducted a
research to document the biological value of the Bukit Tigapuluh
ecosystem. As the result of research, the Bukit Tigapuluh ecosystem with
an area of 250,000 ha was recommended to be determined as national
park. In 1995 Bukit Tigapuluh was established as national park by
Ministerial Decree comprising an area of 127,698 ha. In 2002 its area
has been extended to 144,223 ha
The Park has been under
consistent threat from illegal logging and palm oil plantations, with
two thirds of the park logged. Surrounding buffer zones and wildlife
corridors are diminishing, with 30,000 hectares, the largest area of
forest remaining outside the Park, released in May 2009 by the
Indonesian government for logging, with the licence granted to a joint
venture company involving Asia Pulp & Paper/Sinar Mas Group (APP),
to clear the largest area of forest outside the Park.